The Caduceus

Here’s a final look at the pyramids:

Notice that there are two golden mean rectangles that are in golden mean proportion to each other. At first glance this is an unusual arrangement that appears to lack any artistic merit. If we add clockwise Fibonacci spirals inside the rectangles however, it seems to yield a serpent:

This snake hints at the Rod of Asclepius. As an ancient symbol of medicine, it consisted of a serpent coiled clockwise around a rod. Asclepius was the god of healing. His followers were some of the first priests who were also formally trained as physicians in the medical arts. They were also some of the most prized astronomers of their day and often instructed the pharaohs in the movement of the stars.

Bearing this in mind, the snake also has a heavenly reference. In astronomy, an analemma is like a time exposure that shows the position of the Sun in the sky during the year. It was once known as the serpent in the sky. You can create an analemma by keeping a camera at a fixed location and orientation and taking dozens of photos throughout the year:

A gnomon (from the Greek “one that knows or examines”) is the part of a sundial that casts a shadow. This simple tool was used for a variety of purposes—in this case it was used to measure the annual path of the Sun across the ground. Examining this in more detail yields the solstices, equinoxes and seasons. In other words, the gnomon casts the shadow of time:

The Caduceus therefore, symbolises the path of the Sun measured by the shadow of a gnomon. Created by a sceptre once used by early astronomers, it is hard to imagine a simpler method of measuring time. Although a basic device, it was used in Egypt for thousands of years and informed observers of the difference between apparent solar time and mean solar time.

Apparent solar time is measured by the natural course of the Sun in the sky. Mean solar time is the theoretical cadence of the Sun if it traveled at a constant speed throughout the year—rather than its actual velocity that varies with the seasons. The difference between apparent and mean solar time is known as the equation of time. This comes from the medieval Latin aequātiō diērum, meaning “equation of days”.

Above: mean solar time was also known as “clock time”

For thousands of years, the right time was accurately shown by a sundial. When good mechanical clocks were introduced, they agreed with sundials only four times a year, so the equation of time was used to “correct” their readings. In the graph below, a sundial will appear fast relative to a clock (above the x-axis) and slow (beneath) it:

So the apparent Sun and the mean Sun may be as much as 16 minutes apart because the motion of the solar disc against the background of the stars speeds up and slows down annually. There are two reasons for this. Firstly, the Earth’s orbit is not circular and she moves at slightly different speeds in different seasons. Secondly, the Earth’s axis is tilted relative to the plane of her orbit.

So why did the sundial we call the Was sceptre have a head on it? Well, the “zenith pass” was a moment when the Sun was directly overhead and cast no shadow whatsoever. Because the sceptre was a hand-held device, it meant that the shadow of the bearer’s hand obstructed the result on the ground. The solution was to build a gnomon with a head on it—at the moment of the zenith pass it would be the same length as the shadow:

So the analemma is really made up of caducean serpents that represent the movement of the Sun upon the ground. The Latin word Caduceus is an adaptation of the Greek Kerukeion, meaning “herald’s wand”. In ancient Egypt, the two entwined serpents symbolised the call of creation and provided the basis for the Giza Necropolis:

Is there anything in the human body that resembles this design? The upper neck, where the hyoid bone is located, is where deep change can be realised. Looking energetically at the throat chakra is like looking into a deep well. These energies are unlike the other energy centres—they can inspire great change.

So the hyoid bone acts like a HORN. Unlike other cartilage, the “herald bone” is separated by muscles and ligaments and appears to “float” in the neck. In reality, it is anchored by muscles from the anterior, posterior and inferior directions and aids in tongue movement and swallowing. The name hyoid is derived from Greek hyoeides, meaning “shaped like the letter upsilon.”

The hyoid apparatus is also well-developed in snakes. Here it usually extends to the tenth cervical vertebra, allowing the tongue to be extremely mobile. This enables the snake to breathe directly through its glottis even while swallowing prey. The hyoid is attached to the lower jaw, tongue and throat muscles which means the snake is extremely sensitive to sound.

The Sun therefore, is a solar deity who moves very much like a snake in the sky. Falcons also describe a serpentine motion as they wheel overhead. Thoth was viewed as the messenger of the gods and it remained the Was sceptre that balanced light (Horus) with his shadow (Set). This is why the sceptre was often held in conjunction with the Ankh:

On one level, Giza was a sundial. It was designed like a gigantic shadow from an imaginary gnomon. But the Egyptians realised something much deeper—that this shadow had golden mean properties. In other words, you could create a mirror of the Rod of Asclepius (second image from top) which resulted in something more profound:

Above: can you see the Ankh implied in this design?

This shadow of the Sun was sacred because it was balanced. You could therefore add the revolutions of the planets to it (represented by the pyramids) because they too had golden mean ratios in their relative cycles. The Ankh was the embodiment of a mirror because it reflected the movement of the heavenly bodies.

So God is the divine artist and the cosmos is His masterwork. The unmanifest realm is mirrored in the manifest realm. Even humans are sacred speculums—splinters of the Mind’s eye. Mirrors represent the gate between the conscious and unconscious worlds. Reflections are seen as spiritual practice—the infinite recognising itself in the finite.

THIS is the secret of the pyramids. Our ancestors observed the Ankh not just in the temporal world (the rotation of the planets), the spacial world (chemistry and biology) but also in the resonant world (the music of the spheres). Alchemy was a sacred science that joined all aspects of creation together in a way that celebrated the harmonious nature of the universe. The Was, the Caduceus and the Ankh were not just hieroglyphs, but universal symbols of life.

Giza then, is a model of the conscious cosmos—above and below, within and without. The architects were screaming this to the heavens when they built Giza. The original name for the pyramids then, was simply the Three Tenors. Egypt at her height then, was truly a star culture.